Urology is the study, diagnosis and treatment of medical and surgical conditions of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the male genital system at all ages, caused by conditions of congenital, traumatic, septic (infectious), metabolic (stones), obstructive and oncological (cancer) origin. The study, diagnosis and treatment of male infertility includes disorders and many other areas which are usually grouped into functional units such as:
1 Urodynamics Unit .
Includes the study, diagnosis, treatment, counseling and continuous monitoring of patients with neuro-urological disease and spinal cord injury (of congenital, traumatic, infectious, degenerative, iatrogenic causes, …) or neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Its objective is the preservation of renal function, trying to restore, as far as possible, without voiding dynamic functional compromise of the upper urinary sections. A close liaison between Rehabilitation, Nephrology, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery services and the Andrology Unit must be maintained.
2 Uro-gynecology Unit.
For the study, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases specific to women or related to problems and / or iatrogenesis of gynecological origin, with special reference to female stress urinary incontinence. The fundamental mission is the prevention of urinary incontinence in women at risk, its correction in patients suffering this condition and collaboration with gynecologists to minimize the risks of urological problems in gynecologic surgery. Therefore a close relationship between the gynecology service and Urodynamics unit must exist.
3 Lithiasis/ lithotripsy Unit.
This unit provides comprehensive care for lithiasis patients (study, diagnosis, treatment, evolutionary control and prevention). There should be a close liaison between the Endourology unit and Laboratory and Radiology services.
4 Andrology Unit.
Assistance and counseling for men with infertility or male erectile dysfunction. This unit is closely related to Gynecology and Reproduction and Family Planning.
5 Uro-oncology Unit,
This includes the study, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with urogenital, retroperitoneal and adrenal cancer. There is a close relationship with Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Pathology, Immunology and Radiology Services.
6 Pediatric Urology Unit.
Study, diagnosis, treatment and comprehensive patient monitoring in childhood. There must be a relation between the adult urology and pediatric service.
7 Renal transplant Unit.
For the study of CKD patients prior to their inclusion on the transplant waiting list, diagnosis and treatment of complications, and monitoring and management of kidney transplant patients in order to achieve the highest possible quality of life and longest survival for grafts and patients. It must maintain a close relation to services of Vascular Surgery, Nephrology, Immunology, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Urologists participate in the Transplant Program if they pursue their activity in one of the 20 centers accredited by the SAS (Andalusian Health Service) for extraction and / or renal implant.
8 Endourology and Laparoscopy Unit.
The study and treatment of infectious-inflammatory, gallstone, tumour or iatrogenic processes of congenital origin of the urinary tract which can be addressed using endoscopic or percutaneous techniques. This is the chosen treatment for those processes which are indicated either due to the particular risk characteristics of the patient or the ease of solving the problem laparoscopically. There is a close relationship with lithiasis, lithotripsy and uro-oncology units, as well as Laparoscopic Surgery and Radiology services.
9 Prostate disease Unit.
This is a recent addition in most hospitals as a result of the incorporation of BPH /Prostate cancer to process management. Its function is the study and treatment of the most prevalent prostate diseases and early diagnosis (transrectal ultrasound and prostate biopsy) and trend monitoring of prostate cancer, according to the criteria of evidence-based medicine, offering the best potential therapeutic alternative. It should work in close relation to Uro-Oncology and Pathology units.
10 General urology Unit.
It is responsible for the study and treatment of those processes not covered in the previously mentioned units. This unit should be linked with other urologic units, common hospital services and, as in other units, at primary care level.
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