Fertility Treatments


The WHO (World Health Organization) defined azoospermia as the absence of sperm in the semen or ejaculate.


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What is Azoospermia?

The WHO (World Health Organization) defined azoospermia as the absence of sperm in the semen or ejaculate. This diagnosis should be based on at least two semen samples with a gap between them of about 4 weeks.



¿Cuál es su Frecuencia?
Su prevalencia es del 2% en la población general y del 10-20% en los hombres estudiados por esterilidad.

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Frequent causes

Why does it happen? What are its causes?

In practice, we distinguish two types of azoospermia: obstructive, in which sperm do not appear in the ejaculate due to an obstruction of the seminal duct, and non-obstructive, in which no sperm are produced in the testis, either due to a lack of hormones, or because of a congenital or acquired condition.

1 Normal.

andromedi tipos de azoospermia 01

Types of azoospermia (normal)

2 Pre-testicular azoospermia.

Types of azoospermia (pre-testicular)

3 Testicular azoospermia.

Types of azoospermia (testicular)

4 Obstructive azoospermia.

Types of azoospermia (ostructive)


Treatment Summary

This is short summary of the whole process: from the appointment request, to receiving the medical discharge after the treatment in some our Andromedi centers in Madrid, Seville or Canary islands (Tenerife)

Consultations Needed

Several. At least one for a medical interview and physical examination plus some genetic and laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment Type

Treatment depends on the patient's assessment and levels of a hormone called FSH. Hormone therapy shows good results.

Previous Advice

Patients often seek help many years after the onset of the problem and this complicates treatment. Seeking help early is critical.

Results and Waiting Periods

Treating male infertility is complicated and can take several years, but early detection is helpful.

Resuming Sex Life

Sex life in these patients is usually normal. This normal life depends on the patient's approach.

Further Tips

To keep attending medical checkups is ideal to assess the progress of treatment and sperm levels in semen.

andromedi tratamiento titulares 02

"In our centres in Madrid, Seville or the Canary Islands (Tenerife), we carry out the techniques and treatments with the most modern facilities and the best specialists and equipment to guarantee an effective solution".

Medical Evaluation

How is it diagnosed?

The minimum initial evaluation should include a complete medical history, physical examination and hormonal profile, including at least FSH and testosterone in blood. Genetic testing may be of interest and recommended in some cases (suspected Cystic Fibrosis, karyotype, microdeletions of the Y chromosome, etc.).

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Techniques and treatments

What is the treatment protocol?

This protocol will depend on the initial assessment and FSH levels. Hormonal treatment can be included to stimulate sperm production or a testicular biopsy may be carried out.

Remember to visit us at our Andromedi centres in Madrid, Seville or Tenerife for more information.

How is a Testicular Biopsy performed?

If it is necessary, a testicular biopsy can be performed to obtain testicular sperm. Although there are different methods, currently the most used are TESE and microTESE. Both are usually performed under local anesthesia, but can be performed with sedation if necessary depending on the case, and on an outpatient basis (no need to be admitted to the clinic)

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What is microTESE?

In borderline cases, in which sperm retrieval by biopsy is believed to be virtually impossible, or in cases where conventional biopsy or TESE failed in previous attempts, the MICRO-TESE can offer an additional percentage of successful sperm retrieval. According to some authors, the success rate increases from 45 to 65% with this technique, in which a search with surgical microscope is employed.

investigador utilizando microscopio laboratorio


Dr. Natalio Cruz

Natalio Cruz MD, with 25 years of medical experience, has been until 2016 Head of the Andrology Unit in the Urology Service of the Virgen del Rocío Hospital in Seville, National Coordinator of Andrology in the Spanish Association of Urology (AEU) and General Secretary in the ESSM, positions that he has narrowed to focus squarely on this exciting project of offering a high-level private medical consultation in Seville, Madrid and Tenerife.

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Andromedi Clinic of Urology and Sexual Medicine

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