Although rare, complications from trichomoniasis can occur in patients with special conditions. For example, in gestational women, the disease could advance the time of labour from weeks to months, most likely due to the weakening of the vaginal mucosa and the constant immune reaction in that area, which activates pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines.
In turn, this disease has been shown to increase the risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
In men, urethritis and prostatitis caused by infection with trichomonas vaginalis are highly likely to become malignant over time, increasing the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Patients at higher risk of complications from initial infection with trichomonas vaginalis are those whose immune systems have been weakened by more chronic conditions. For example, seropositive patients (HIV), patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inadequately controlled diabetics, morbidly obese, sex workers, or patients with cancer and antineoplastic treatments (chemotherapy), as the latter decrease the body's immune response.
The causes of mucous secretions from the urethra are quite extensive, ranging from vaginal infections by bacteria to increased cervical mucus during ovulation. Only through specific tests (such as microscopic observation, test strips for trichomonas vaginalis or PCR) a case of real trichomoniasis can be confirmed to start treatment. However, this vaginal discharge has a particular characteristic, an unpleasant or infrequent odour.